Zambia is a landlocked country in Southern Africa. It is bordered by Namibia, Angola, The Democratic Republic of the Congo, Botswana, Zimbabwe, Mozambique, Malawi, and Tanzania.
Population estimate (2018): 17,847,975
Capital City: Lusaka
Currency used: Zambia Kwacha
Gross National Income per capita (2013) (PPP international $): 3
Time zone: GMT +2
Population growth rate (2018): 3.01%
Total fertility rate per woman: 6.2
Languages: While English is the official language in Zambia, Bantu languages are most commonly spoken as well as over 72 indigenous languages. The regional and indigenous languages have influenced the English dialect in Zambia which is quite unique.
Key ethnic groups: There are 72 ethnic groups in Zambia, including Bemba 22%, Tonga 11%, Lozi 5.2%, Nsenga 5.1%, Tumbuka 4.3%, Ngoni 3.8%, Chewa 3%, white 1% and others 45%.
Religion: 75.3% Protestant, 20.2% Roman Catholic, 2.7% other (Muslim, Hindu, Buddhist), 1.8% religiously affiliated or traditional beliefs.
Climate: Zambia has a tropical climate with three seasons; cool and dry from May to August, hot and dry from September to November, and warm, humid and rainy from around mid November to April. Maximum temperatures range from 15ºc to 27ºc in the cool season, and 27ºc to 35ºc in the hot season.
Life expectancy at birth (2016): 60/64 (male/female)
Probability of dying between 15 and 60 years: 324/250 (per 1000 population, 2016)
Total expenditure on health per capita (2014): $195
Number of doctors per 1000 population (2016): 0.091
Nursing and midwifery personnel density (per 1000 population, 2016): 0.886
Neonatal mortality rate (per 1000 live births, 2016): 22.9 [16.2-31.5]
Maternal mortality rate (per 100.000 live births, 2015): 224 [162-306]
Births attended by skilled health personnel (2013): 63.3%
Top 10 causes of death (2013):
HIV/AIDS: 21,672 people / 18.73% of total
Influenza and Pneumonia: 11,454 / 9.90%
Diarrhoeal diseases: 9,001 / 7.78%
Malaria: 7,242 / 6.26
Coronary heart disease: 5,182 / 4.48%
Birth trauma: 4,679 / 4.04%
Tuberculosis: 4,675 / 4.04%
Low birth weight: 4,217 / 3.64%
Road traffic accidents: 4,005 / 3.46%
Stroke: 3,939 / 3.40%
The healthcare system in Zambia comprises public and private sectors. The government offers universal healthcare to its citizens, however, public systems are heavily underfunded. The public sector is organised in a decentralised manner with three levels. The first level, where primary health care and preventative services are provided, consists of Health Posts, Rural Health Centres and District Hospitals. The second level, which provides curative care, consists of provincial and general hospitals. The tertiary level comprises central hospitals and the National University teaching Hospital, which offer specialised care. There is a shortage of public healthcare workers, as many Zambian doctors work for the private sector or leave the country to work abroad.
There are many health facilities of high standards in the private sector. These are able to offer various specialised medical services. Large specialist private hospitals are mostly concentrated in larger cities, and cater to foreigners as well as more affluent Zambian citizens.