Kenya is a country in East Africa bordered by Tanzania, Uganda, Ethiopia, Somalia, South Sudan and the Indian Ocean.
Population estimate (2018): 50,505,891 people
Capital City: Nairobi
Currency used: Kenyan Shillings
Gross National Income per capita (2013) (PPP international $): 2
Time zone: GMT + 3
Population growth rate (2018): 2.52%
Total fertility rate per woman: 4.03
Languages: Kiswahili, English and several indigenous languages and dialects.
Key ethnic groups: There are numerous ethnic groups in Kenya but the biggest ones are Kikuyu 17%, Luhya 14%, Kalenjin 13%, Luo 11%, Kamba 10%, Kisii 6%, Meru 4%.
Religion: 83% Christian, 11.2% Muslim, 1.7% Traditionalists, 1.6% other, 2.4% religiously unaffiliated, 0.1%.
Climate: Kenya has three types of climate; hot and humid along the coast, hot and dry in the north and east, temperate in the west and south-west, which are dominated by plateaus and mountains. Altitude differences result in large variations in temperature, average daytime temperatures range between 19ºc and 28ºc. Generally the warmest period is from February to March and the cooler period from July to August. There are two rainy seasons; from March to May and from October to December.
Life expectancy at birth (2016): 64/69 (male/female)
Probability of dying between 15 and 60 years: 256/184 (per 1000 population, 2016)
Total expenditure on health per capita (2014): $169
Number of doctors per 1000 population (2014): 0.2
Nursing and midwifery personnel density (per 1000 population, 2014): 1.582
Neonatal mortality rate (per 1000 live births, 2016): 22.6 [17.8-28.6]
Maternal mortality ratio (per 100.000 live births, 2015): 510 [344-754]
Births attended by skilled health personnel (2014): 61.8%
Top 10 causes of death (2012):
HIV/AIDS: 54.5 thousand people / 14.8% of total
Lower respiratory infections: 45.4 / 12.3%
Diarrhoeal diseases: 23.4 / 6.3%
Protein-energy malnutrition: 15.3 / 4.1%
Birth asphyxia and birth trauma: 14.9 / 4%
Stroke: 14.6 / 4%
Preterm birth complications: 13.5 / 3.7%
Malaria: 12.0 / 3.2%
Tuberculosis: 9.4 / 2.5%
Ischaemic hearth disease: 9.2 / 2.5%
Distribution of causes of deaths in children under 5 (2013):
Other causes: 18% of total
Acute respiratory infections: 18%
Birth asphyxia: 14%
Neonatal sepsis: 6%
Congenital anomalies: 6%
The healthcare system in Kenya comprises a public sector, private not-for-profit and private for-profit sectors. The public sector is organised across 8 provinces and has 6 levels of care; community health units, dispensaries, health centres, district hospitals, provincial referral hospitals, and national Tertiary hospitals. Currently the public sector provides 41% of healthcare facilities in the country.
The private sectors include faith-based and mission hospitals, as well as local and international NGOs (non-profit) and for-profit private facilities. The private healthcare sector is growing in Kenya and currently provides 43% of the health centres in country. Approximately 15% are run by NGOs. Most private clinics are concentrated in the larger urban centres, and private hospitals offering inpatient care are located in Nairobi and Mombasa.
Primary care is provided at dispensaries and primary healthcare centres. Dispensaries are small clinics that can be found in many villages and towns, as well as in bigger cities. They treat common cases such as infectious diseases, Malaria, minor injuries, diabetes, and high blood pressure. There are both public and private dispensaries, with the public dispensaries being more prevalent but also more basic in terms of facilities and equipment. They are run and managed by nurses who are supervised by a nursing officer at a health centre. If patients require treatments beyond the scope of their local dispensary they will usually be referred to a health centre.
Secondary care (integrated curative and rehabilitative care) is provided at sub-district, district and provincial hospitals. Sub-district hospitals are similar to health centres but they also have a surgery unit. District hospitals are normally able to provide surgical services and encompassing medical care. Provincial hospitals provide intensive care, life support and specialist consultations.
Public healthcare facilities are often understaffed and lack equipment and supplies due to limited resources. Most private facilities have a higher standard, however, higher costs mean that a large proportion of the population are unable to afford private healthcare. The facilities of highest standards are mostly found in Nairobi and the Central Province.