Brazil is the largest country in South and Latin America. It is bordered by the Atlantic Ocean and all other countries in South America except for Chile and Ecuador (that is Uruguay, Argentina, Paraguay, Peru, Bolivia, Colombia, Venezuela, Guyana, Suriname and French Guiana.
Population estimate (2019): 211,800,009
Capital City: Brasilia
Currency used: Brazil Real
Gross National Income per capita (2013) (PPP international $): 14,750
Time zone: GMT – 3
Population growth rate (2019): 0.70%
Total fertility rate per woman: 1.75
Languages: Portuguese is the primary and official language in Brazil.
Key ethnic groups: 47.73% White Brazilians (of European descent, mainly Portuguese, Italian, Spanish and German), 43.13% “Pardo” (combined Native, European and African Ancestry), 7.61% African Brazilians, 1.09% Asian Brazilians, 0.43% Indigenous Brazilians.
Religion: 65% Catholic, 22% Protestant, 1.3% Spiritists, 0.3% traditional African religions, 7% non-religious, 1.3% “other religions”.
Climate: Brazil has three climatic regions; equatorial, tropical with a dry season, and almost Mediterranean. The equatorial region mostly covers the Amazon Basin and some coastal areas. Here it is hot, humid and rainy throughout the year. In the forest region daytime temperatures are around 30-32ºc, whereas temperatures are generally a bit lower in the coastal areas due to sea breezes. The tropical climate region includes southern and most of central Brazil. Here there is a dry season from May to August and a rainy season from October to March. Rio, which is located in this region, can see temperatures ranging between 25 and 38ºc. The most southern part of the country has a subtropical climate, with significantly lower temperatures and winters similar to the Mediterranean climate.
Life expectancy at birth (2016): 71/79 (male/female)
Probability of dying between 15 and 60 years: 194/91 (per 1000 population, 2016)
Total expenditure on health per capita (2014): $1,318
Number of doctors per 1000 population (2013): 1.852
Nursing and midwifery personnel density (per 1000 population, 2013): 7.444
Neonatal mortality rate (per 1000 live births, 2016): 7.8 [5.4-10.3]
Maternal mortality ratio (per 100.000 live births, 2015): 44 [36-54]
Births attended by skilled health personnel (2013): 99.1%
Top 10 causes of death:
Coronary heart disease: 164,557 people / 15.56% of total
Stroke: 107,977 / 10.21%
Influenza & pneumonia: 85,933 / 8.12%
Diabetes mellitus: 63,956 / 6.05%
Violence: 63,349 / 5.99%
Lung disease: 53,466 / 5.05%
Road traffic accidents: 47,068 / 4.45%
Lung cancers: 28,427 / 2.69%
Liver disease: 25,344 / 2.40%
Kidney disease: 23,864 / 2.26%