Canada is the second largest country in the world, located in North America. It is bordered by the United States of America to the south.The country is particularly known for its breathtaking nature, winter sports as well as the diverse and modern urban life in the big cities.
Population estimate (2019): 37,173,187
Capital City: Ottawa
Currency used: Canadian Dollar
Gross National Income per capita (2013) (PPP international $): 42,610
Time zone: The large country has 6 time zones, ranging from GMT – 8 in the west to GMT -3.5 in the east.
Population growth rate (2019): 0.70%
Total fertility rate per woman: 1.60
Languages: English and French are the official languages. French is mainly spoken in Quebec and Montreal.
Key ethnic groups: Canada is one of the most multicultural countries in the world, and while all citizens are considered Canadian, many self-identify as having the following ancestries: 18.34% English, 13.93% Scottish, 13.55% French, 13.43% Irish, 9.64% German, 4.61% Italian, 4.43% First Nations (indigenous Canadians), 4% Indian.
Religion: 67% Christian, 24% no religion, 3.2% Muslim, 1% Jewish, 1.5% Hindu, 1.4% Sikh, 1.1% Buddhist.
Climate: Weather and temperatures vary considerably in Canada, and seasons are fairly distinct. Spring usually starts in February, although a more pleasant spring weather normally doesn’t start until May. Summer is generally from late May to September. July and August are the hottest months where temperatures can rise up to 35ºc. Winters are long and cold and can be particularly harsh in the interior and northern regions where it is not uncommon for temperatures to drop to -25ºc.
Life expectancy at birth (2016): 81/85 (male/female)
Probability of dying between 15 and 60 years: 76/49 (per 1000 population, 2016)
Total expenditure on health per capita (2014): $4,641
Number of doctors per 1000 population: 2.1
Nursing and midwifery personnel density (per 1000 population, 2015): 9.8
Neonatal mortality rate (per 1000 live births, 2017): 3.5
Maternal mortality ratio (per 100.000 live births, 2015): 7
Births attended by skilled health personnel (2014): 97.9%
Top 10 causes of death:
Coronary heart disease: 37,876 people / 17.93% of total
Alzheimers/Dementia: 23,536 / 11.14%
Lung cancers: 20,431 / 9.67%
Lung disease: 13,408 / 6.35%
Stroke: 12,693 / 6.01%
Colon-rectum cancers: 9,463 / 4.48%
Diabetes mellitus: 6,834 / 2.23%
Influenza & pneumonia: 6,391 / 3.03%
Breast cancer: 5,785 / 2.74%
Falls: 5,125 / 2.43%
Canada has a well-developed healthcare system, comprising a public and a private sector, which both offer high quality care and facilities. Canadian citizens receive public health insurance coverage through a group of publicly funded socialised health insurance plans. The federal government sets guidelines but the systems are administered on provincial and territorial bases. Through the insurance plans, citizens receive preventative care, primary care medical treatments, access to hospitals and dental surgery. Public hospitals receive referrals from primary care physicians and also operate on an emergency basis.
Some people choose to opt for private healthcare insurance as a supplement to their public insurance. This is beneficial to people who require additional services not covered by public insurance, such as more comprehensive dental and optical care, prescription medicines or certain specialist services. Private insurance can be obtained from private insurance providers or as part of employment benefit packages, which are offered by many companies. One of the key benefits of private healthcare is reduced waiting times.